He is bound to all those people who are related to him either on the basis of blood or marriage. When a person marries, he establishes relationship not only with the girl whom he marries but also with a number of other people in the girl’s family. These studies of the late 1970s and ’80s challenged the intellectual edifice on which the study of kinship had been built and gave rise to a lively debate over the mutual definition of kinship and gender. The most prominent of these scholars combined legal studies with ethnology and included Henry Maine, Johannes Bachofen, John Ferguson McLennan, and Lewis Henry Morgan. The father’s sister gets more respect than the mother. If the study of kinship was defined largely by anthropologists, it is equally true that anthropology as an academic discipline was itself defined by kinship. In this connection it may be pointed out that blood relationship may be actual as well as supposed. According to Maine’s theory, the earliest form of kin organization was a state of “patriarchal despotism” in which society consisted of an aggregation of families, each under the rule of the father. Similarly the Sema Naga of Assam use aja for mother, father’s brother’s wife, mother’s sister. From birth till death he is surrounded by a number of people. A classification of persons related through kinship in a particular language or culture is called a kinship system. Author of. They attempted to trace the historical evolution of family forms from the most “primitive” to the most “modern” and “civilized.”. During the mid-20th century, studies of kinship became increasingly abstract and removed from the practice of actual lived relations and the powerful emotions that they engendered. This is a queer usage which is found among many primitive tribes like the Khasi and the Toda. They are primary kin of primary kin. Personhood, cohesion, and the “matrilineal puzzle”, Reciprocity, incest, and the transition from “nature” to “culture”, Historical materialism and instrumentality, Households, residence rules, and house societies, Feminist and gendered approaches to kinship, Challenging the conceptual basis of kinship, Reproductive technologies, social innovation, and the future of kinship studies. Among polyandrous tribes the actual father of a child is unknown. According to Dr. Dubey, there are eight such primary kins. In the late 19th century, however, the cross-cultural comparison of kinship institutions became the particular province of anthropology. In other words, they are related through primary kin. On marriage a person also becomes foofa, nandoi and mausa. The evolution of society was characterized by Maine as a movement from “status” to “contract” forms of relationship—in other words, a change from relations ordered by ascribed positions in a familial system to one in which relations were based on contractual obligations freely entered into by individuals. Two of them are functionalist explanations given by Redcliff Brown and G. P. Murdock. First, they create groups: special groupings of kin. Thus marriage assigns each mother a husband, and makes her children his children, thereby creating a special group of father, mother and children, which we call “family”. It is the reverse of avoidance relationship. It is used for chacha, mama, mausa, foofa, taoo, etc. In all societies the usage of avoidance is observed in one form or another. Thus, son, brother, sister, uncle (chacha), elder uncle (taoo), nephew and cousin are consanguineous kin. The word shi stands for elder brother’s wife; mother’s brother’s wife; father’s brother’s wife. Until the last decades of the 20th century, for example, kinship was regarded as the core of British social anthropology, and no thorough ethnographic study could overlook the central importance of kinship in the functioning of so-called stateless, nonindustrial, or traditional societies. Premium Membership is now 50% off! Morgan called kinship terminology that differentiated lineal kin from others “descriptive,” while systems that grouped lineal and collateral kin became known as “classificatory.” He posited that classificatory terminology reflected a system in which a group of brothers shared their sisters in marriage and that it was a cultural survival from an earlier time in which either father and father’s brother had been indistinguishable or the distinction held no social significance.
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